Patent Application on IEE SAS

Contact: Ing. Gabriel Vanko, PhD.
Office for Technology and Knowledge transfer and the Protection of Intellectual Property of Slovak Academy of Sciences (TTO SAS)

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on – line access to concrete patent:



  • Zápražný, Z. a Maco, M.: Compound refractive lenses and method for their production. PP50014-2021
    Refractive lenses are mainly used in X−ray microscopy on synchrotrons. Synchrotrons are high−intensity X−rays sources with a high degree of coherence. To effectively increase the spatial resolution of the X−ray imaging system on the synchrotron, it is necessary to reduce the focus of X−rays. A system of refractive lenses (Compound Refractive Lens−CRL) can be used for this purpose.
    The X−ray refractive lens has curved surfaces (e.g. cylindrical or parabolic) and it is used for focusing or collimation of X−rays. For focusing from point to point, the most suitable shape is the so-called Cartesian oval, which can be approximated by an ellipse. For collimation of X−rays from a point into a parallel beam, the shape of a parabola or paraboloid is needed. Due to the low refractive index of X−rays, X−ray refractive lenses must be stacked in a row, e.g. 20 or more pieces, to reduce the focusing distance. This will create the so−called compound refractive lens (CRL).
    Various methods are used to produce refractive lenses for X−ray applications on synchrotrons. Lithographic methods enable to produce lenses of very small dimensions, but only with the use of 2D active surfaces (parabolic, elliptical), which focus the X−ray beam to a line. All etching methods enable to produce lenses with 2D surfaces that focus the beam to a line. Subsequent focusing to a point requires the use of another series of lenses that are rotated by 90 degrees. Drilling is inappropriate because it produces only 2D cylindrical surfaces that cause optical aberration (X−ray image distortion). Embossing enables to produce 3D surfaces in lenses, but these must be then very precisely adjusted in a common optical axis. During production, embossed lenses are pressed side by side in the direction of the optical axis. One method that allows the production of 3D parabolic refractive lenses (rotary parabolic) is ion beam lithography. This method requires having a FIBSEM device allowing to produce only one lens in one step. The required number of lenses need to be set very precisely in a row with one common optical axis to achieve the required focusing distance. The production is time consuming.
    The Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) method is currently used for example to make molds for embossed lenses, but the direct production of an X−ray refractive lens or a compound X−ray refractive lens by SPDT is not yet known.
    A team of inventors from established Slovak scientific and research institute and successful Slovak company has managed to overcome the above−mentioned shortcomings using the innovative nano−machining method with a monocrystalline diamond tool for manufacturing of the compound refractive lens. The CRL is divided off of the optical axis, while the entire focusing area remains intact by the division plane avoiding undesired scattering effects. Grooves for better access of the machining tool are located between the individual lenses. SPDT can achieve high shape accuracy, whether it is a parabolic, ellipsoidal, Cartesian oval or aspherical refractive lens. The advantage of this technology is that in one technological step it is possible to produce the entire array of X−ray lenses, e.g. 20 pieces in a row, to create the CRL. This eliminates the need to adjust individual lenses in a row to the common optical axis.
  • Zaťko, B. ana Dubecký, F.: Large area detector of ionizing radiation and particles with its support, method of preparation and connection comprising large area detector. PP50017-2021
    The large area detector of ionizing radiation with its support includes:
    semiconductor substrate in form of plate, the full area electrode deposited on back side of the semiconductor substrate and led out on the support as anode connected to the read-out electronics, the active electrode in form of 2 to N segments deposited on top side of semiconductor substrate, where individual segments are categorized as correct or incorrect: based on current-voltage characteristic, segments are marked as incorrect if the value of dark current is one order of magnitude higher as median value of dark current of all others segments and/or based on the spectrometric performance, where segment is marked as incorrect if the value of full width at half maximum of tested peak from calibration radiation source is higher than 1.5 multiple of the median value of all other segments, the other segments are marked as correct and all correct segments are parallelly connected and led out on the support as cathode connected to one read-out chain. The object of this invention is also the method of detector preparation.
  • Hrkút, P., Čaplovič, I., Novák, I. a Gaži, Š.: Zariadenie na rovnomerné opracovanie povrchu sypkých materiálov v plazme. Číslo patentu: 288857, udelený 2021.


  • Chromik, Š., Talacko, M. a Španková, M.:  Method for preparation of manganite La-Sr-Mn-O films with high onset temperature transition to ferromagnetic state. Patent no.: 288749, 2016.
    The patent describes a preparation process (parameters: partial pressure of O2 and Ar, substrate temperature, deposition rate, cooling rate) of stable manganite LSMO films with a high ferromagnetic transition temperature.
  • Chromik, Š., Talacko, M., Španková, M. a Jung, G.:  Method of preparation of channels with suppressed superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-x microstrip using electron beam irradiation. PP 50006-2020.
    The patent deals with the method of preparation of well-defined narrow channels with suppressed superconductivity in YBCO tapes by means of a 30 keV electron beam irradiation in a commercial Scanning electron microscopy device. The mechanisms arising from such a process, such as the formation of an additional carbon layer and the presence of a kick-off effect, contribute to a sufficient suppression of superconductivity in the exposed channel.
  • Plakonyuk, M., Hansen, O., Kundrata, I., Fröhlich, K., Boisen, A., Rindzievicius, T., and Bachmann, J.: Atomic Layer Process Printer. PCT/EP2020/065396.


  • Korytár, D., Svorada, M. a Zápražný, Z.: Machining method and tool for machining of the inner walls of channels in brittle materials in the nanometer range. PP50023-2019
    The method solves the technology of preparation of X−ray channel−cut monochromators with high quality of channel walls. It serves to achieve high flatness and low surface roughness of the canal walls, which are the active elements of this X-ray optics.
    Hitherto, after cutting the canals with a diamond saw, the active areas of the canal walls have been prepared by lengthy stochastic methods. They were lapped with finer and finer aqueous abrasive suspensions, especially SiC, then polished with finer and finer oil or aqueous suspensions, e.g. SiO2 or Al2O3 using e.g. polyurethane pads (chemo-mechanical polishing, CMP), hand-held power tools, or most recently using a specially made hand-held imitating machine. In addition to CMP, chemical polishing is used as the final operation, which removes subsurface lattice disturbance, but on the other hand, chemical polishing disrupts the flatness of the surfaces (orange peel) due to the inhomogeneity of the chemical process.
    The novelty of the surface treatment technology of X−ray channel−cut monochromators is based in the use of a deterministic method of surface machining using a specially shaped diamond single crystal tip tool, which is mounted laterally in the groove of the circular holder due to the stability and rigidity of the system. In addition to the industrial use for the production of X-ray channel monochromators, we anticipate further use of the new technology for ultra-precise machining of similarly shaped products.                                            The advantage over the current state is significantly higher shape accuracy (flatness of the inner walls of the monochromator), lower surface roughness and reduced subsurface damage of the crystallographic (crystal) lattice (a quarter of chemical polishing time compared to the stochastic method is sufficient for possible finishing). The disadvantage in some cases is the surface grid from the tool track, which can be suppressed by chemical or physical polishing. The solution with two diamond tips makes it possible to achieve extreme parallelism of the inner walls of the channel by other methods unattainable.             A primary example of use is for X−ray channel−cut monochromators for high−resolution X−ray diffractometry, both laboratory and synchrotron, and secondarily, the method can also be used for neutron diffractometry and ion optics. We anticipate further applications of this technology and tool for ultra−precise machining in confined spaces such as channels in precision and fine mechanics, microfluidics and optics.
  • Cambel, V., Šoltýs, J., Tóbik, J., Fedor, J., Precner, M., Feilhauer, J., Ščepka, T., Dérer, J., Bublikov, K. a Vetrova, I.:  A method of fabricating a magnetic force microscopy tip, a tip made by this method, and a method of scanning a magnetic field using the tip. PP50030-2019.
    The patent relates to a magnetic force microscopy tip based on a magnetic vortex core. The tip is geometrically thick and blunt, with a ferromagnetic disk placed at its very end. The magnetic ground state of the disk is the vortex state—the narrow magnet is represented by the vortex core with a diameter of about 20 nm. The vortex core acts like a magnetically sharp nanoscale probe. As the tip is blunt, it is mechanically durable. The solution also concerns the method of production and use of tips.


  • Kuzmík, J.: Vertical GaN transistor with insulating channel and the method of forming the same. PCT/SK2018/000009.
  • Balog, M., Krížik, P., Kováč, P., Hušek, I., Kopera, Ľ., and Rosová, A.: Superconductor wire with MgB2 core and Al based sheath and method of its production. PCT/IB2018/ISA/220.
    An ultra-lightweight superconducting MgB2 wire with a Ti barrier and special in-situ Al+Al2O3 composite outer sheath can be fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion into boron process. Specific heat treatment at 628-635 oC for 10-30 min allows to form a high current density MgB2 core along with a high strength Al+Al2O3 sheath and Ti diffusion barrier with a limited interfacial reaction at the sheath interface. The MgB2/Ti/Al+Al2O3 wire reached the high current densities and good tolerance to axial strain at low temperatures. Windings based on the MgB2/Ti/Al+Al2O3 can lead to at least 2.5 times weight reduction when compared with a typical MgB2/Nb/Cu wire of the same cross-sectional dimensions. The mass of MgB2/Ti/Al+Al2O3 wire is the lightest one and more than one order of magnitude smaller in comparison to all other low temperature and high temperature superconductors. This meets demanding requirements on electrical and mechanical properties of superconductors for efficient superconductive and light weight applications, e.g. powerful wind turbines, airborne engines and space systems.


  • Sojková, M. and Chromik, Š.: The way of patterning of Tl-based superconducting thin films. P 288436


  • Šouc, J., Gömöry, F., Vojenčiak, M., Soloviov, M., Kováč, J., and Štefánik, S.: Superconducting coil and feed superconducting cable. Patent Appl. No. PP 50063-2015.
    The principle of the proposed patent is the method of the superconducting conductors cooling to a sufficiently low temperature with a flow of cryogenic liquid through the tube with good thermal conductivity, on which these conductors are wound, in combination with their thermal isolation from the ambient room temperature using a material with a sufficiently low thermal conductivity, without the need of vessel with vacuum walls that serve as thermal insulation or without the need for direct cooling in bath of cryogenic liquid.


  • Sojková, M. and Chromik, Š.: Stable sputtering target for the fabrication of the precursor films suitable for the preparation of high temperature superconductors based on thallium and mercury. Patent Appl. No. PP 50057-2014.
    The invention solves very fast and simple way of the fabrication of Ba-Ca-Cu-O,F sputtering target with high stability serving for the fabrication of the precursor films suitable for preparation of high temperature superconductors based on thallium and mercury utilizing fluoride precursors.


  •  Dzuba, J., Lalinský, T., Rýger, I., Vallo, M., and Vanko, G.: MEMS pressure sensor with a high electron mobility transistor and a production method thereof. Patent Appl. No. PP 94-2013.
    MEMS pressure sensor with a high electron mobility transistor is construed so its circular or ring or “C”-shaped membrane is constituted by an active AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with an integrated C-HEMT sensing element with possible Si layer of the substrate, which contains at least one inner and one outer Schottky gate sensing electrode (1,2). The inner Schottky gate sensing electrode (1) is positioned to the radius (ri) of a ring sphere where the mechanical stress in the membrane changes its character from tensile to compressive or vice versa. The outer Schottky gate sensing electrode (2) is positioned above the radius (ri) of the ring sphere where the mechanical stress in the membrane changes its character from tensile to compressive or vice versa. Meanwhile, following relationship holds: ri=[c+b/(hm+a)].rm-q, where: (hm) is a thickness of the membrane and (rm) is a radius of the membrane.
  • Kuzmík, J.: Enhancement mode III-N transistor with N-polarity and a production method thereof. Patent Appl. No. PP 67-2013.
    Enhancement-mode III-N transistor with N-polarity consisting of following layers, from the bottom: a bottom barrier layer (1); a channel layer (2); an upper barrier layer (3), the chemical composition of which is different from the composition of the bottom barrier; and dielectric insulating layer (4), while the upper barrier layer/channel layer interface exhibits a negative polarization charge with an absolute value larger than the positive polarization charge at the channel layer/bottom barrier layer interface, and the transistor threshold is freely adjustable.
  • Sojková, M. and Chromik, Š.: The way of patterning of thin superconducting films based on thallium. Patent Appl. No. PP 5030-2013.
    The aim of the work was to find fast and effective way for the patterning of the thin superconducting films based on thallium using wet etching. So far, some bi- and tri-carboxylic acids as succinic, oxalic, malonic, citric, adipic or tartaric acid were used successfully for the wet etching of the thin superconducting Tl- based films. However, the etching rate is very low (0.3 – 0.6 nm / s). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (H4EDTA) and its sodium salts can be used too with etching rate about 1 nm / s, but it is necessary to maintain the pH of the solution and nitrogen bubbling during etching process. The main drawbacks of these methods consist in forming a low etching rate and selective etching. The above mentioned problems can be solved by the use of etchant based on potassium iodide. The invention is used for the preparation of thin film structures of superconductors based on Tl using photolithography and wet etching. An aqueous potassium iodide solution, hydrochloric acid, and ascorbic acid is used as an etchant. The etching process is fast enough (about 15 nm / s), do not remain residues on the surface of the substrate, and there is no degradation of the superconducting properties.


  • Kunzo, P. and Lobotka, P.: Method of plasma charge treatment of the gas sensitive layer of gas sensor. Patent Appl. No. PCT/SK2011/050024.
    Sensor for accurate examination and analysis of gases, predominantly hydrogen and/or ammonia, using electrical and electrochemical means. The sensing element of the sensor consists of conducting polymer whose outer surface is treated in a plasma discharge with electron temperature (thermal kinetic energy) of 1 to 10 eV and electron density of 1014 to 1018 m-3. The plasma is generated in oxygen gas or the plasma treatment in other gas is followed by the sensor exposure to the oxygen containing gas afterwards. The conductive polymer is polyaniline or polypyrrole or polytiophene or their combination.


  • Šouc, J., Vojenčiak, M., and Gömöry, F.: The method of modification of superconducting wire Patent Appl. No. PP 5043-2010.
    The solution is related to the modification method of superconducting wires and consists in placement of feromagnetic tapes in one layer above the spacing of superconducting tapes around the forming element.
  • Ušák, P., Mozola, P., and Polák, M.: SK Patent No. 287557.
  • Šoltýs, J., Cambel, V., Fröhlich, K., Hušeková, K., Karapetrov, G., and Šatka, A.: Patent Appl. No. PP 5041-2010.


  • Vincenc Oboňa, J. and Chromik, Š..: SK Patent No. 286586.


  • Dubecký, F., Darmo, J., Pelfer, P.G., Kordoš, P., and Förster, A.: SK Patent No. 282934.